Vertical Take-Off & Landing: A New Form of Mobility?
Vertical Take-off & Landing (VTOL), refers to aircraft that take off, hover and land vertically, as opposed to airplanes that takeoff horizontally with runways. There are two main types of VTOL crafts. Rotorcraft use rotor blades to generate lift and movement. Powered-lift vehicles can take off vertically but fly forward using fixed wings like airplanes. Future VTOL aircraft could include automated flying taxis, also known as passenger drones or drone taxis, which could provide a new form of mobility.
Several companies, including Uber Elevate, Lilium, Kitty Hawk, and Volocopter have announced plans or started testing VTOL aircraft in some form. More traditional aeronautics names, such as Airbus and NASA, are also experimenting with VTOL technology. Some of these companies envision medium-range flights within a metropolitan area, while Lilium envisions longer ranges, such as London to Paris flights. Uber has publically stated that they plan to operate flying taxis by 2020, while Kitty Hawk has reached an agreement to test self-flying craft in New Zealand. Several of the companies are collaborating with traditional aircraft manufacturers, like Bell Helicopters.
Many companies envision fully-automated flight in the future, but most recognize that a human pilot is necessary in the craft or at a control center until automated systems are more advanced. However, some companies such as Lilium are designing their aircraft to fall within a less rigorous Sport Pilot license. The United States regulatory framework for prototype VTOL aircraft is unclear at this time; new rules will need to be developed especially as less human control and more automation is developed.
The VTOL crafts currently in development are mostly powered via electric motors and batteries, as opposed to traditional liquid fuel. Due to the limits of battery storage, they are being designed with lightweight materials.
VTOL craft could provide a new mobility option. We have outlined some potential benefits below:
Decreased travel time for users compared to ground travel, particularly in congested metropolitan areas
Improved travel flexibility for users due to direct air routes between destinations
Potential to improve travel safety for users due to fewer ground based conflicts and automated flight control
Reduced greenhouse gas emissions as compared to other forms or flight as most VTOL concepts include electric based drive systems
Reduced ground noise as compared to traditional helicopters
VTOL craft are likely to face regulatory and technological hurdles before they move from early testing to widespread use. We have outlined some of the potential limitations of the technology below:
Limited flight time and range due to battery storage capacity and weight issues
Designated landing areas will need to be defined and controlled, requiring coordination with land owners and public agencies
Community acceptance of operations and landing areas may vary by city/region, limiting the ability to scale
Pilots will likely be needed in the near term until craft are able to operate safely on their own
Airspace control regulations will need to be negotiated and monitored
Cost could limit demand, depending on the range of factors influencing prices
Safety and security concerns will need to be addressed for both marketing/branding and regulatory purposes
Weather conditions could impact the reliability of such a service, thereby limiting demand
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Fehr & Peers is committed to devoting some of our R&D resources to evaluating emerging technologies such as VTOL so we can keep our clients informed and help them navigate this rapidly changing landscape.